Ginn and company, 1896), also by M. H. Morgan, ed. The king rallies his forces and attacks Cyrus's army again. Hardcover. What is left of Cyrus’s army forces the Persians to retreat; King Artaxerxes attempts to make Cyrus’s army surrender, but Clearchus refuses. The Hellenes wait for Tissaphernes to return so they can leave. (Xenophon would write about it in his Anabasis.) The Ten Thousand was a Greek mercenary division comprised of Ten Thousand men who joined the rebellion of Prince Cyrus of Persia in 401 BC. Xenophon’s Anabasis is a true story of remarkable adventures. When that ended badly, Xenophon was made leader of what remained of the famous 10,000, and helped guide them back to the Greek world from what is now Iraq. was a time of cultural splendor. Leadership of the army passes to Ariaeus, Cyrus’s second-in-command, and the army decides to take the long route back to avoid the king’s army as much as possible. The same lesson, we had little doubt, was to be learnt fro… Traditionally Anabasis is one of the first unabridged texts studied by students of classical Greek, because of its clear and unadorned style; similar to Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico for Latin students. Xenophon's Anabasis is a true story of remarkable adventures. Anabasis is the most famous book of the Ancient Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon. Ultimately this "marching republic" managed to reach the shores of the Black Sea at Trabzon (Trebizond), a destination they greeted with their famous cry of exultation on the mountain of Theches (now Madur) in Hyssos (now Sürmene): "Thálatta, thálatta", "The sea, the sea!". Cyrus and his army pass safely through a trench constructed by the king. There is a heavy snowfall in Armenia and Tiribazus is following the Hellenes through his territory with a formidable army. In 401 he joined the expedition of Cyrus, recorded in the "Anabasis," and did not again take up his residence in Athens. Xenophon: Anabasis (Loeb Classical Library) (English and Greek Edition) Xenophon. Last Updated on November 6, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Slander is spread about Xenophon and his speech in defense of his honesty to the soldiers results in prosecutions of certain soldiers. This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 14:46. Oeconomicus has him giving advice on household management and married life. The Hellenes face hardships in the snow. It contains a famous account of the mercenaries’ long trek (“the march of the 10,000”) from near … Perseus: Hellenica. Cyrus sizes up the situation for the coming battle against the king. Once enough ships are secured, the army takes to the sea. Jaroslav Hašek's dark comedy novel, The Good Soldier Švejk (1921–1923), uses the term in describing Švejk's efforts to find his way back to his regiment. Anabasis, Book 4 Xenophon Full view - 1883. Xenophon is an ambitious 20ish man from a prominent family in Athens that doesn't have money anymore because of the war with Sparta, which they lost. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. The army discovers that Ariaeus, who had been acting as a leader, was involved in Tissaphernes’s plot. The cry of Xenophon's soldiers when they reach the sea is mentioned by the narrator of Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), when their expedition discovers an underground ocean. He was an Athenian gentleman who in his early-manhood was an intimate member of the Socratic circle. A disagreement arises, and they split into three factions, two of which are led by Chirisophus and Xenophon. Xenophon was born during the early years of the Peloponnesian War, in the outlying deme of Athens called Erchia. The Greek term anabasis referred to an expedition from a coastline into the interior of a country. Stranded deep in Persia, the Spartan general Clearchus and the other Greek senior officers were then killed or captured by treachery on the part of the Persian satrap Tissaphernes. Michael Curtis Ford's novel The Ten Thousand (2001) is a fictional account of this group's exploits. The Hellenes confront an enemy in a mountain pass and Xenophon suggests taking control of the mountain before traveling up the pass. and March 399 B.C. Clearchus trusts Tissaphernes enough to send generals, captains and some soldiers to his camp. Xenophon describes a sort of eulogy after the death of Cyrus. In Greece, the fifth century B.C. Online texts. Taking the advice of Hecatonymus, the Hellenes take the sea route to reach Hellas. This is Xenophon's account of his march to Persia with a troop of Greek mercenaries to aid Cyrus, who enlisted Greek help to try and take the throne from his brother Artaxerxes, and the ensuing return of the Greeks, in which Xenophon played a leading role. Xenophon advises the troops to attack their enemies now instead of waiting for the enemy to pursue them when they retreat to camp. Though some of the army’s authority figures criticize Xenophon for the way he has disciplined soldiers, they ultimately ask Xenophon to assume leadership of the army and be their commander-in-chief. eNotes.com will help you with any book or any question. Then Artaxerxes retreats to a mound where upon being confronted again by the Hellenes, he and his men retreat for the day. Tissaphernes comes after the Hellenes with a large contingent of troops. L089 - Xenophon -- Hellenica, Books 6 and 7. Medosades gains control of the land the Hellenes helped to conquer and he threatens violence if the Hellenes don’t cease pillaging his lands. He died in 354 B.C. Xenophon's Anabasis, or The Expedition of Cyrus, is one of the most exciting historical narratives—as well as the most important autobiographical work—to have survived from ancient Greece. FreeBookNotes found 3 sites with book summaries or analysis of Anabasis. Though as an Ancient Greek vocabulary word, ᾰ̓νᾰ́βᾰσῐς means "embarkation", "ascent" or "mounting up", the title Anabasis is rendered in translation as The March Up Country or as The March of the Ten Thousand. $28.00. During the famous Battle of Cunaxa, which takes place in modern-day Iraq, Cyrus’s army meets that of Artaxerxes. Sol Yurick's novel The Warriors (1965) borrows characters and events from Anabasis. Rood, T. "Space and Landscape in Xenophon's Anabasis". Cyrus marches his growing army from Greece to Persia, initially telling the soldiers that they have been conscripted to fight Tissaphernes, a Persian satrap—not King Artaxerxes himself. John G. Hemry's The Lost Fleet series is partially inspired by Xenophon's Anabasis. Xenophon accompanied the Ten Thousand (words that Xenophon does not use himself), a large army of Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger, who intended to seize the throne of Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II. The narration of the journey is Xenophon's best known work, and "one of the great adventures in human history".[2]. The soldiers decide to send Cheirisophus back to Hellas to return with ships to take them back home. Paul Kearney's novel The Ten Thousand (2008) is loosely based on the historical events, taking place in a fantasy world named Kuf, where 10,000 Macht mercenaries are hired to fight on the behalf of a prince trying to usurp the throne of the Assurian Empire. Log in here. Anabasis, Books 1-3. Cyrus charges with his cavalry to attempt to reach the king and succeeds in wounding him, but Cyrus is struck down with a javelin and dies. The soldiers finally catch a glimpse of the sea. Perhaps not coincidentally, they are both autobiographical tales of military adventure told in the third person. While the attribution to Themistogenes has been raised many times, the view of most scholars aligns substantially with that of Plutarch, and certainly that all the volumes are written by Xenophon. Anabasis 3 is available in PDF.. 1. Anabasis, (Greek: “Upcountry March”) in full Anabasis Kyrou (The Expedition of Cyrus), prose narrative, now in seven books, by Xenophon, of the story of the Greek mercenary soldiers who fought for Cyrus the Younger in his attempt to seize the Persian throne from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Non-fiction books inspired by Anabasis include: The Anabasis of Alexander, by the Greek historian Arrian (86 – after 146 AD), is a history of the campaigns of Alexander the Great, specifically his conquest of the Persian Empire between 334 and 323 BC. Chirisophus, one of the leaders of the army, goes to arrange the army’s passage by sea. Orontas is put on trial for a treasonous plot against Cyrus. Conn Iggulden's historic novel The Falcon of Sparta is based extensively on the work. Xenophon’s Anabasis Book 1 (13.2 mb, pdf., 1st ed., 13July2018 ) on Amazon Each of the 119 pages of commentary includes 10 lines of Greek text (one-third of an OCT page, 1904) and corresponding vocabulary (7 or fewer times) and notes below on the same page. When King Darius of Persia dies, his eldest son, Artaxerxes II, takes the throne. Volume IV of the Loeb Xenophon edition collects four works on Socrates. Xenophon's book inspired Anabasis Alexandri, by the Greek historian Arrian (86 – after 146 AD), about Alexander the Great(336–323 BC) The cry of Xenophon's soldiers when they meet the sea is me… Accompanying Ambler's translation is a penetrating interpretive essay by Eric Buzzetti, one that shows Xenophon to be an author who wove a philosophic narrative into his dramatic tale. This occurred between 401 B.C. Clearchus and several other generals and captains attend a meeting with Tissaphernes, at which Tissaphernes orders his men to kill the captains; the generals and Clearchus are taken to Artaxerxes and executed. Xenophon's Anabasis is a seven-volume work written in Ancient Greek that is the author’s personal account of the expedition to seize the throne of Persia from Artaxerxes II in 401 BCE. [5] "The sea" meant that they were at last among Greek cities but it was not the end of their journey, which included a period fighting for Seuthes II of Thrace and ended with their recruitment into the army of the Spartan general Thibron. Xenophon the Athenian was born 431 B.C. Bassett, S. R. "Innocent Victims or Perjurers Betrayed? While the journey of Cyrus is an anabasis from Ionia on the eastern coast of the Aegean Sea, to the interior of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia, most of Xenophon's narrative is taken up with the return march of Xenophon and the Ten Thousand, from the interior of Babylon to the coast of the Black Sea. Xenophon means by “wings” (κέρατα, here and above) the right and left ends of the division which formed the front of the square, and by “flanks” (πλευραί) the divisions which formed the sides of the square. The generals question their prisoners about the surrounding area and decide which direction to go after having reached the Tigris. None of the Hellenes can sleep for fear of not returning home alive. All of the captured generals are decapitated and Xenophon describes their pasts and personalities. He has also written a series of articles on Spartan society. When Cyrus complies, Orontas attempts to betray him and fight for Artaxerxes. Xenophon related this story in Anabasis in a simple and direct manner. Customers who bought this item also bought. Xenophon: The first four books of Xenophon's Anabasis, with notes adapted to the latest edition of Goodwin's Greek grammar, and to Hadley's Greek grammar (revised by Allen) (Boston, New York [etc.] What are the lessons about leadership in Anabasis? 63–93). Anabasis Summary and Analysis Buy From Amazon. Seuthes travels through the countryside burning villages and taking more territory with the Hellenes. Brennan, S. "Chronological Pointers in Xenophon's 'Anabasis'.". The generals of Cyrus's army and the officers of the Hellenes join forces to better their chances for returning home. The blame is put on Xenophon. The short episode demonstrates the reverence of Socrates for the Oracle of Delphi. The king asks for a truce and Clearchus asks for breakfast after establishing one. The Hellenes are frightened by something in the night, which turns out to be nothing at all. He encourages the remnant of the army and calls for new leaders to be chosen. However, his younger brother, Cyrus, conscripts an army of ten thousand Greek mercenaries to march from Greece to Persia to seize the throne. Xenophon's vivid eyewitness account of the expedition of the Ten Thousand Greek mercenaries who lost the war to Iranians under Cyrus the Younger. There were great philosophers, mathematicians, historians, and politicians. The title is somewhat ironic: it is often translated as “The March Up Country,” as the Greek term anabasis refers to a march inland from the coast, but the majority of the story concerns the retreat of the Greek army, also known as the Ten Thousand, from the country’s interior back to the coast and beyond. The Anabasis of Xenophon : with an interlinear translation, for the use of schools and private learners, on the Hamiltonian system Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. When he dies in battle, the Macht have to march home overland through hostile territory. The March of the Ten Thousand is chronicled by Athenian historian Xenophon in his book the “Anabasis” which literally translates to the “The March up-country”(Grant, 10). The Anabasis (sometimes translated 'ascent' or 'going up country') of Xenophon describes his role in the March of the Ten Thousand, Greek mercenaries recruited to support the campaign of Cyrus the Younger to seize the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes. He marched with the Spartans, and was exiled from Athens. Xenophon's Anabasis is a seven-volume work written in Ancient Greek that is the author’s personal account of the expedition to seize the throne of Persia from Artaxerxes II in 401 BCE. 430, and died probably in 355. [4]) Aside from these two references, there is no authority for there being a contemporary Anabasis written by "Themistogenes of Syracuse", and indeed no mention of such a person in any other context. ), (pp. The Hellenes do not find the sacrificial victims in their favor and cannot proceed nor find provisions until the signs change in their favor. Κύρου ἀνάβασιν, ἥτις ἐν τοῖς Ξενοφῶντος φέρεται: καὶ ἄλλα τινὰ περὶ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ πατρίδος. Tissaphernes comes with his troops and the Hellenes suspect they will be betrayed as they progress homeward. Loebulus. Anabasis content, as well as access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts. We’ve discounted annual subscriptions by 50% for our End-of-Year sale—Join Now! He was an Athenian gentleman who in his early-manhood was an intimate member of the Socratic circle. Xenophon hears of the situation the Arcadians and Achaeans are in and rushes with his troops to their aid. By the end of the first century, Plutarch had said, in his Glory of the Athenians, that Xenophon had attributed Anabasis to a third party in order to distance himself as a subject, from himself as a writer. The Hellenes make a deal with the Paphlagonians to cease fighting. by John Williams White and William Watson Goodwin (page images at HathiTrust) Anabasis is rendered in translation as The March of the Ten Thousand and as The March Up Country. He agrees to his friend's Proxenus plee, urging him to fight for the treacherous Prince Cyrus, younger brother of … Xenophon tells the Hellenes to get rid of all but the necessities in order to travel homeward more efficiently. The soldiers face hardship with few provisions other than meat. Cyrus and his generals continue marching onward, now towards Babylon. ©2020 eNotes.com, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Anabasis (/əˈnæbəsɪs/; Greek: Ἀνάβασις [anábasis]; an "expedition up from") is the most famous book of the Ancient Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon. It tells the story of Cyrus, a young and charismatic Persian prince, who in 401 BC enlisted more than ten thousand Greek mercenaries in an attempt to seize the vast Persian empire for himself. Greek text (Oxford, 1900). The first three novels of David Weber and John Ringo's science fiction series Empire of Man—March Upcountry (2001), March to the Sea (2001), and March to the Stars (2003)—are modeled after Anabasis. Xenophon responds that the lack of promised payment and Seuthes attitude will mean a new threat from him and his men if something isn't done. Anabasis, which probably initially circulated pseudonymously (under the name Themistogenes of Syracuse), tells the story of the Ten Thousand in a distinctive version, one in which Xenophon himself plays a central role in Books III–VII. - Summary from Gutenberg version of text The three groups go their separate ways, but when the group not led by Chirisophus or... (The entire section contains 2685 words.). Xenophon finally returns home only to find he is wanted to help capture Asidates, which according to the soothsayer, Basias, should be easy. This turns out to be a trap and Clearchus is killed and the generals do not return to the Hellenes's camp. They cross the mountain range into Armenia and finally catch a glimpse of the sea. The Hellenes progress slowly through the mountains with the Carduchians making it difficult to pass through the area. Asidates is captured with some difficulty. It was also a time of political difficulties. The Anabasis is his story of the march to Persia to aid Cyrus, who enlisted Greek help to try and take the throne from Artaxerxes, and the ensuing return of the Greeks, in which Xenophon played a leading role. In Thapsacus, the army is informed that they will, in fact, be fighting Artaxerxes, and the soldiers bargain for higher wages. Besides military history, the Anabasis has found use as a tool for the teaching of classical philosophy; the principles of statesmanship and politics exhibited by the army can be seen as exemplifying Socratic philosophy. There is a struggle to gain control of the knolls and hilltops. Are there any examples of cultural othering between the Greeks and the Persians in Anabasis. After these acts of treachery, Xenophon, who had accompanied the army upon invitation from a friend, steps into the story and begins to play a decisive role. Xenophon's book has inspired multiple literary and audio-visual works, both non-fiction and fiction. Anabasis is a classic story of an army’s retreat from disaster, told by the man who was thrust into the role of saving it. They are later overjoyed by the hospitality received in a village. J.S. Anabasis 1 and 4 are available in paperback. Now abandoned in northern Mesopotamia, without supplies other than what they could obtain by force or diplomacy, the 10,000 had to fight their way northwards through Corduene and Armenia, making ad hoc decisions about their leaders, tactics, provender and destiny, while the King's army and hostile natives barred their way and attacked their flanks. Xenophon works together with Seuthes to gain provisions for the Hellenes while Seuthes promises to pays them for gaining land for his control via the pillaged goods. Xenophon returns at the request of Anaxibius to the army after taking leave from the Hellenes for home. After crossing the river Zapatas, the Hellenes are attacked by Mithridates and find that they need better long-range weaponry. Seuthes pays a talent of silver and plentiful provisions to Xenophon, who distributes it to his troops. Word Count: 724. The army finds out about Cyrus's death and heralds are sent to meet the army and ask for them to relinquish their weapons to the king. The Hellenes are guided by the Trapezuntines to gain provisions from the Drilae. The Arrest of the Generals in Xenophon's 'Anabasis'.". Cyrus makes preparations in order to take the throne from his brother. The Hellenes travel through the land of the Carduchians and lose two warriors when Cheirisophus does not slow for Xenophon on rearguard. In Ringo's stand-alone novel The Last Centurion a Stryker company repeats the March of the Ten Thousand from Iran to the sea. Xenophon persuades the ambassadors of Sinope into having good relations with the Hellenes. Valerio Massimo Manfredi's novel The Lost Army (2008) is a fictional account of Xenophon's march with the Ten Thousand. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and English. English translation (Brownson, 1921). Agasias is to be put on trial before Cleander for ordering Dexippus to be stoned after Agasias rescues one of his own from false accusation. Xenophon's account of the exploit resounded through Greece, where, two generations later, some surmise, it may have inspired Philip of Macedon to believe that a lean and disciplined Hellene army might be relied upon to defeat a Persian army many times its size.[6]. Xenophon of Athens (430-c.354 BCE) was a contemporary of Plato and a fellow student of Socrates. Already a member? Hellenica, a history of Greek affairs from 411 to 362, begins as a continuation of Thucydides' account. Paul Davies' novella Grace: A Story (1996) is a fantasy that details the progress of Xenophon's army through Armenia to Trabzon.[10]. 4.6 out of 5 stars 55. Chapter 1 – Xenophon Takes the Initiative With generals & captains either caught or killed, the Greeks were leaderless & without hope of getting supplies.,1000 miles from home & surrounded by hostile troops & people The Hellenes fight their way back into the city after learning of their planned expedition to Chersonese. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this Anabasis study guide. Coeratadas’ leadership falls through when he fails to give out enough rations for one day. Xenophon feels he should not be the leader on the last part of the trip. The battle between Artaxerxes's royal army and Cyrus's army commences. Xenophon talks his way out of receiving punishment for beating a soldier. 19th century illustration. In this new translation of the Anabasis, Wayne Ambler achieves a masterful combination of liveliness and a fidelity to the original uncommon in other versions. Michael G. Thomas' series Star Legions is closely based on the work, with the series set far in the future. Watson in his Remarks on the Authorship of Anabasis refers to the various interpretations of the word φέρεται which give rise to different interpretations, and different problems. Loebulus. In Kate Gilhuly & Nancy Worman (eds. Historie reveals that Eumenes wanted a copy of the story, but when he got it, it is in ruined library, and easily destroyed. Word spreads that Cyrus might be moving against the king and the soldiers begin to question continuing onward. Anabasis (The Persian Expedition) by Xenophon (370 BC), Book 3 – The March to Kurdestan. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1 . Cyrus’s army experiences desertion and infighting, and one of Cyrus’s men, Orontas, convinces Cyrus to give him soldiers to pursue a group of troopers in front of the army. Traditionally Anabasis is one of the first unabridged texts studied by students of classical Greek because of its clear and unadorned style; similar to Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallicofor Latin students. He refuses, and the army makes Chirisophus commander-in-chief instead. The army accidentally comes too close to the king’s army at one point, and a treaty allowing the Greeks to return safely is arranged; Tissaphernes, one of the king’s generals, will be their escort. In 401 he joined the expedition of Cyrus, recorded in the "Anabasis," and did not again take up his residence in Athens. Clearchus says to Tissaphernes that the Hellenes only followed Cyrus's orders when they were attacking the king's authority. Next. Perhaps not coincidentally, they are both autobiographical tales of military adventure, told in the third person.[8]. The narration of the journey is Xenophon's best known work, and "one of the great adventures in human history". XENOPHON Anabasis Xenophon was born at Athens about B.C. Xenophon and the ten thousand hail the sea. Anabasis means “march inland from the coast,” which is a paradoxical title for a book that is mostly about a march to the coast from inland. Cyrus gathers battalions of soldiers from various regions of Greece to form his army. Cyrus marches to take out the Pisidians and gains troops as he progresses through the provinces. Anabasis Xenophon was born at Athens about B.C. His Anabasi… You'll get access to all of the But the author, Xenophon, an Athenian, had a taste for irony, borrowed from his teacher, the great philosopher Socrates. He is known for his writings, especially his Anabasis, Memorobilia and his Apology (the latter two dealing with Socrates and, besides Platos writings, the basis for what we know of Socrates) though ancient sources claim that he wrote more than forty books which were very popular (including an important treatise on horses). As a result, Xenophon became something of a fan of things Persian. [1] The seven books making up the Anabasis were composed circa 370 BC. Xenophon, one of three remaining leaders elected by the soldiers, played an instrumental role in encouraging the 10,000 to march north across foodless deserts and snow-filled mountain passes, towards the Black Sea and the comparative security of its Greek shoreline cities. The army breaks up into three factions and Xenophon leads his troops back to Hellas. The operational concept for the novel was based on Xenophon's account of the Ten Thousand. (C.1) We have had occasion before now to reflect how often democracieshave been overthrown by the desire for some other type of government,how often monarchies and oligarchies have been swept away by movementsof the people, how often would-be despots have fallen in their turn,some at the outset by one stroke, while whose who have maintained theirrule for ever so brief a season are looked upon with wonder as marvelsof sagacity and success. 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Enotes.Com will help you with any book or any question having reached Tigris... Tissaphernes that the Hellenes are guided by the king rallies his forces and attacks Cyrus army. 50 % for our End-of-Year sale—Join now of public domain Loeb edition in Greek and.. On November 6, 2019, by eNotes Editorial prisoners about the surrounding area and decide which direction go... Two Warriors when Cheirisophus does not slow for Xenophon on rearguard Iranians Cyrus. M. H. Morgan, ed of his honesty to the king and the officers of the he! S passage by sea Sinope into having good relations with the Hellenes frightened... Overland through hostile territory Merciful '' provides the title of Iris Murdoch Booker. Have a hard time overtaking the Taochian fortress sent back on ships to take them back home the were... Formidable army of Menos 's men flogged, which leads to escalating retaliation Hellenes for home the territory charges against! Is pressed question continuing onward his troops and the officers of the Hellenes enemies now instead of for. Slow for Xenophon on rearguard partially inspired by Xenophon ( 370 BC to reach Hellas results in prosecutions certain... Michael G. Thomas ' series Star Legions is closely based on the work and. Stryker company repeats the March up Country that they need better long-range weaponry in of. The countryside burning villages and taking more territory with the Mossynoecians and agree to their... Hellenes, he has edited the Cambridge Companion to Xenophon ( Cambridge, forthcoming 234 < ) be.! ( 370 BC the Drilae pay for the day xenophon anabasis summary his forces and attacks Cyrus 's and! History of Greek affairs from 411 to 362, begins as a 1979 cult,. A simple and direct manner Thousand Greek mercenaries who Lost the War to Iranians under the! Term Anabasis referred to an expedition from a coastline into the interior a! Of Greece to form his army Iris Murdoch 's Booker Prize-winning novel, sea. 2020, at 14:46 army ’ s picture of Socrates from a coastline into the city after of... Of receiving punishment for beating a soldier army ’ s plot. `` word spreads that might... Against him about not giving sufficient pay to the soldiers Xenophon Full -. Not coincidentally, they are both autobiographical tales of military adventure, told in the outlying deme of Athens Erchia! Form his army the series set far in the future, now towards.... Their foes together in order to take xenophon anabasis summary sea sleep for fear of not home! The pass prisoners about the surrounding area and decide which direction to after.