[112][114], Meanwhile the Romans took drastic steps to raise new legions: enrolling slaves, criminals and those who did not meet the usual property qualification. Hannibal maintained his position in southern Italy until 203, when he was ordered to return to Africa. Meanwhile, the Carthaginian army was crippled by plague. [97] Toni Ñaco del Hoyo describes the Trebia, Lake Trasimene and Cannae as the three "great military calamities" suffered by the Romans in the first three years of the war. Planning guide. The Roman force was defeated, but managed to escape. One of those disinherited was the Numidian prince Masinissa, who was thus driven into the arms of Rome. Learners will explore and analyse, in depth, the different reasons for Hannibal’s early successes and eventual failure. Observing that the three Carthaginian armies were deployed apart from each other, the Romans split their forces. It is described by Polybius at 9.4-7, and by Livy at 26.4-6. [106] The new allies increased the number of fixed points which Hannibal's army was expected to defend from Roman retribution, but provided relatively few fresh troops to assist him in doing so. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. By 212 BC the full complement of the legions deployed would have been in excess of 100,000 men, plus, as always, a similar number of allied troops. [87] Hannibal marched through the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping the devastation would draw Fabius into battle, but Fabius refused. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. One was stationed at Arretium, and one on the Adriatic coast; they would be able to block Hannibal's possible advance into central Italy, and be well positioned to move north to operate in Cisalpine Gaul. Gaius Nero, commander of the southern Roman army, slipped away north also and defeated Hasdrubal on the banks of the Metauros River. The Roman colonies of Volturnum and … [152] Later the same year a mutiny broke out among Roman troops, which initially attracted support from Iberian leaders, disappointed that Roman forces had remained in the peninsula after the expulsion of the Carthaginians, but it was effectively put down by Scipio. *218 BC **Battle of Lilybaeum A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of … Wikipedia. There were three main military theatres during the war: Italy, where the Carthaginian general Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly, with occasional subsidiary campaigns in Sicily, Sardinia and Greece; Iberia, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success until moving into Italy; and Africa, where the war was decided. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The heavily outnumbered Carthaginian infantry held out while this was happening until Hasdrubal charged into the legions from behind. [159] Hannibal attempted to use 80 elephants to break into the Roman infantry formation, but the Romans countered them effectively and they routed back through the Carthaginian ranks. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. Second Punic War. The Romans retreated to their coastal stronghold north of the Ebro, from which the Carthaginians again failed to expel them. [2] His works include a now-largely-lost manual on military tactics,[3] but he is now known for The Histories, written sometime after 146 BC. 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